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‘’Rogue’’ Versus ``Moderate ‘’ Regimes: The Case of the Republic of Iraq


3/11/2019 10:43:00 PM


 This article is about past and the present regimes of Iraq, from that of Saddam Hussein to the current present regime of Dr. Barham Salih. it will start by comparing Iraq and Nigeria because these two Countries are similar in several aspects, both have great security challenges orchestrated by terrorist groups while Iraq suffers from the ISIS (The Islamic state of Iraq and Syria) on the other hand Nigeria is been meted with an insurgency from BOKO HARAM. Both Countries faces corruption, injustice, discrimination, poverty, and unemployment although both are very rich in crude oil and energy. This article argued that Iraq has the chance to create an Economic miracle and to act as an icon of hub to all the Countries in the Middle East because of the new visionary leader Dr. Salih who hopes to transform Iraq and make it the ‘’New Emirate of Dubai’’ in the Middle East, with his motto ‘’Iraq first’’ an Iraq that will be free from Sectarian violent, a one and unify Iraq. This article will end by giving some recommendations of what should be done to make Iraq a safe haven in the Middle East.


Iraq and Nigerian are Countries which are both rich in crude oil and are characterized by hobbled political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructures, and poor macroeconomic management. Nigerian rulers, as well as the leader of Iraq Saddam Hussein, failed to diversify the economy its over-dependence on the capital intensive oil sector which provide about 95% of the foreign exchange and about 80% of Nigerian budgetary. Whereas for Iraq oil provides about 99%  of its foreign exchange earnings and 95% of it budgetary, Nigeria has a national debt of about $80 billion while Iraq has a national debt of about $120 billion[1].


Nigerian and Iraq have deteriorating security situations caused by the Islamic jihadists who carry out terror activities which have destabilized peace and Economic development in the two Countries. In Nigeria, the Terrorist group is called Boko Haram while in Iraq the Terrorist group is called The Islamic state of Iraq and Syria. (ISIS) The is a Collegiality between the two groups base on a shared commitment to the Salafist jihad ideology. Boko Haram has place allegiance to ISIS.  Boko Haram originated as a result of the prevailing decay in the standard of living in Northern Nigeria and the North East which eventually manifested into wide spread poverty and economic backwardness facing the region. ISIS, on the other hand, is the fallout of the dysfunctional nature of the Iraqi State and the growing discounted of the Sunnis against the Shiites led government of Iraq. Boko Haram was founded in 1995 by one Abubakar Lawan and he established the ablulsunna wal Jamaah hijra sect in the University of Maiduguri in Borno State and it only becomes violent when Mohammed Yusuf become the leader in 2002[2]. Whereas ISIS was established in 2006 by several base al Qaeda affiliated groups such as al Qaeda in Iraq, and the Jund al Sahhaba (Soldiers of the Prophet companion) and it first leader was Abu Omar al-Baghdadi. Boko Haram wants to reinstate the Sokoto caliphate created by Usman Dan Fodio in 1804 and rejected the colonial boundaries established by the British in 1903 and ad held that western education corrupts the Muslim Society and represents the greatest impediments to the realization of an Islamic Political order. ISIS, on the other hand, rejects the Colonial boundaries created by the Sykes-Picot accord that partitioned lands of the Caliphate therefore, Boko Haram seeks to recreate a modern version of the Caliphate and establish an Islamic rule in Northern Nigeria while the ISIS seeks to create a version of the medieval Abbasid caliphate with a replica of the Al- Andalusia and the Ottoman Empire territorial extension.

The New deal of Iraq initiated by Dr. Barham Salih

The Republic of Iraq has suffered greatly from the hand of a totalitarian and dictatorial regime of Saddam Hussein who refused to seek major restructuring of the regional order and oppose prevailing U.S. role in the Security of Arab allies and he instead engage in mass slaughter of his own people especially the Kurds and supported terrorism abroad and oppose Israel`s existence and therefore hinder the peace process and him intents in procuring weapon of mass destruction until he was finally ousted in Match 2003 by the joined American Invasion which finally leads to his dead. [3]

On the 2nd of October 2018, Dr. Barham Salih was elected as the 8th President of Iraq. Dr. Barham Salih is a neo-liberal leader in which the whole look forward on him to rebuild Iraq, he is the visionary leader that wants to unify Iraq and make Iraq great again. He sees Co-operation as a necessary element to promote peace and security in Iraq, promote democracy and good governance by which includes freedom and equality for all Iraqi, equality before the law, equal protection fair public hearing all these which are articulated in the universal declaration of human right.

For his 5 months in power, he has visited more than 9 Countries. He maintains ties with neighboring Countries such as Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, and Palestine. He has adopted the first draft law of its types for the equity of the equity of martyrs of Camp Speicher that Counts those who were murdered as a martyr and enable their families to enjoy the legitimate rights of martyrs, he considers it as a serious humanitarian tragedy.[4]

His pursue of balanced and regional policy, by his motto ‘’Iraq First’’ this has been done by encouraging political reconciliation, bringing together moderates from across Iraq in the face of extremists the relationship between Baghdad and Erbil have to improve tremendously after decades of war and sanctions and terrorism and Isolation Iraq relations with his neighbor and the world at large have increased significantly.[5]

One of the most important speeches of the President Salih in November 22, 2018 at the "Mediterranean Dialogues" conference in the Italian capital of Rome indicated that 'the Iraq is the heart of a new silk road to the Mediterranean'. This sentence is a pleasure to the countries which located the EURO-Med generally, to Mediterranean Institute for Regional Studies -MIRS- particularly, because the institute has established in Iraq.

Iraq is the heart of a new silk road to the Mediterranean, Dr. Barham said. source: www.presidency.iq/EN/Details.aspx?id=1069

President Salih also participated in the Sulamani forum and emphasizes and guarantees a unified Iraq. He considers corruption to be a political Economy of violence and its perpetrators must be brought to justice as he believed the country is in the major economic transformation which will be akin to the United Arab Emirates.[6]

 Recommendations and Conclusion  

Judging from all direction and perspective the following must be done by the authorities of Iraq in order to build a one and unify Iraq        

-Iraq needs an influential and dynamic international Security, surveillance and intelligence company  that will implement an open system, one card System, access control, IP/hybrid video and IP/Hybrid intercom to counter any form of terror acts in Iraq

-Integration of about 60,000 Shiites militias and the armed groups who are mostly Sunnis into the national army for security purposes.  

-Increase border Security and cooperate with Iraqi neighbors in order to cut off any rout of arms supply to any insurgent groups including ISIS that may arise.

-Cooperate with the United States intelligence working with Security diplomacy in the Middle East

-Cooperate with the United States and its Arab allies to initiate a peace plan for Palestine and Israel because if the peace plan fails and it instead led to war Iraq will be highly affected and will slow down the dreams of Dr. Salih.

Create a commission which will be called the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC). It will be a law enforcement agency that will investigate financial crime such as advance free fraud which is popularly known as 419, money laundry and corruptions in Public and private places and the perpetrators will face full justice  


[1] The Council of Foreign Relations November 8, 2003

[2] Shola, Olanrewaju John(2015). globalization of Terrorism: A case study of Boko-Haram in Nigeria. International Journal of Politics and good governance 6(6)

[3] Minow.M. (1998) Between Vengeance and Forgiveness. Boston: Beacon book pg36

[4] https://Presidencyiq/EN/Default.aspx.

[5] Ibid 2019/02/27

[6] Ibid 2019/03/06